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Ever saw an Espiritista

Codes and Frequencies

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For sample adults in 2007, FOKESPIR reports whether the person had ever seen an Espiritista for health reasons. Those who answered affirmatively were asked whether they had seen an Espiritista in the past 12 months (FOKESPIRYR). In 2007, data on the use of Espiritistas in the past year was also collected for sample children.

FOKESPIR is part of a series of variables from the 2002 and 2007 supplements on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In those years, respondents were asked about their use of folk medicine and 15 other modalities of alternative medicine.

Some of the NHIS questions dealing with folk medicine changed between 2002 and 2007. In 2002, sample adults were asked whether they had ever seen a generic provider or practitioner for folk medicine (see FOKEV).

However, in 2007, sample adults were asked if they had ever seen particular types of folk medicine practitioners, including Espiritistas. The other traditional healers recognized in the 2007 survey included Botanicas (FOKBOTAN), Curanderos (FOKCURAN), Native American Medicine Men (FOKNAM), Shamans (FOKSHAM), Sobadores (FOKSOBAD), and Hierberos/Yerberas (FOKYERB).

For more information about the 2002 and 2007 Alternative Health supplements, see ACUYR. For more information about the full range of variables related to folk medicine, including definitions, see FOKYR.


FOKESPIR is only available for 2007.


  • 2007: Sample adults age 18+.


  • 2007