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For sample adults and children in 2007 and 2012, FOKSOBAD reports whether the person had ever seen a Sobador for health reasons. Those who answered affirmatively were asked whether they had seen a Sobador in the past 12 months (FOKSOBADYR).

Traditional medicine was one of many alternative health treatment modalities included in the Alternative Health Supplements.

Related Variables
Additional information about the use of traditional medicine was collected for respondents who reported using traditional medicine in the past 12 months, including variables on frequency and cost of use. Please use the IPUMS NHIS drop-down menus and search function to explore these variables.


In 2007, sample children were added to the universe for this question. In 2007 only, the sample child universe was not restricted by if the sample child had ever seen a traditional healer (FOKEV). Because of this expanded universe, the number of negative responses for FOKSOBAD is much higher in 2007. Otherwise, there are no comparability issues.


  • 2007: Sample adults age 18+.
  • 2012: Sample adults 18+ and children sample the ages of 4 and 17 who have ever seen one of the traditional healers from flashcard.


  • 2007, 2012