Codes and Frequencies
CANE reports whether the person used a cane or walking stick. Please see Comparability and Universe tabs for changes in universe and question wording between samples.
In 1994 and 1995 this variable is part of the Disability Supplement (NHIS-D) that collects information on disability. NHIS-D included two household interviews: in Phase I all members of sample families were screened for any indication of disability; in Phase II persons with any indication of disability were followed-up for additional information. Phase I includes sensory, communication, and mobility problems; health conditions; activities of daily living and independent activities of daily living; functional limitations; mental health; services and benefits; special health needs of children; early child development; education; relationship to respondent; and perceived disability. Phase II includes four Disability Followback Survey (DFS) questionnaires: one for children, one for adults, one for elderly persons (69 years of age and over) without any indication of disability (also called the Supplement on Aging or SOA; only in 1994), and one for persons with a history of polio.
In 2010, this item was collected for sample adults who completed the Quality of Life supplement (administered to approximately a quarter of sample adults). In 2011-2017, this item was collected for sample adults who completed the Adult Functioning and Disability supplement (administered to a subset of sample adults). Beginning in 2018, this item was included on the sample adult questionnaire.
Changes in the universe and question wording limit the comparability of this variable between samples.
In 1969, 1977, 1979, and 1980, this question refers to all persons.
In 1990, the universe included all persons whose household respondent did not refuse the assistive devices questionnaire. That year, persons coded "Not known to be used/No" include those for whom it was unknown whether he or she used any assistive device for mobility. To identify those persons, please see MOBILAIDYN (Uses aid for getting around).
In 1994 and 1995, this question was asked of persons in the NHIS Disability Supplement Phase I sample who use a mobility aid to get around (MOBILAIDYN).
In 2008, this question applied to the sample adult respondent.
In 2010 and later years, this question was asked of sample adults who use equipment or receive help for getting around(LAWALKCLIMPERQ).
In 1969, 1977, 1979, 1980 respondents are simply asked about whether anyone in the family uses a cane. In 1990 and 2008, the question specifies that the aid is used, "...to get around." In 2010 and 2011, this precision changes to use of equipment for, "...help with walking, climbing steps, or moving around?" In 2012 and later years the person was asked if they use equipment or receive help for getting around.
Please refer to Weights section for information about sample-specific weights. As always, users should employ the prescribed IPUMS NHIS weights.
- 1969; 1977: All persons.
- 1979-1980: All persons.
- 1990: Persons whose household respondent did not refuse the assistive devices questionnaire.
- 1994-1995: Persons in the NHIS-D Phase I sample who use a mobility aid to get around.
- 2008: Sample adults age 18+.
- 2010: One quarter of sample adults, included in quality of life supplement (and excluded from family disability supplement), who use equipment or receive help for walking, climbing steps, or moving around.
- 2011-2017: Sample adults age 18+ who were selected to receive the Family Disability questions, were selected to receive the Functioning and Disability (AFD) section, and used equipment or received help with getting around.
- 2018: Sample adults age 18+ who used equipment or received help with getting around.
- 1969, 1977, 1979-1980, 1990, 1994-1995, 2008, 2010-2018