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Frequency drinking soft drinks, number of time units


SODAPNO is a 3-digit-numeric variable.

0: Never or less than 6 times per year
996: Not in Universe
997: Unknown-refused
998: Unknown-not ascertained
999: Unknown-don't know


For sample adults 18 and over, SODAPNO reports how many times the respondent drank soda or soft drinks in a specified time period. SODAPNO should be used in conjunction with SODAPTP, which reports the corresponding time unit stated by the respondent. For information about the portion size, see SODASIZ.

SODAPNO is part of a series of variables initiated in 1987 related to food, food knowledge, and cancer.


Prior to 2000, respondents were asked about foods they usually ate in the past year. Beginning in 2000, this recall period was reduced to foods the respondent usually ate in the past month. The structure of the responses beginning in 2000 excluding 2005 (recording number of times a food was consumed and the time unit associated with that frequency) makes it possible to compare response categories even with different recall periods. In 2005, this format of separate frequency and time units was not used; instead respondents' answers were organized into pre-defined categories. Researchers interested in using all years of available data may consider seeing the 2005 variable SODAMO, and modifying SODAPNO and SODAPTP to correspond to the pre-defined categories from 2005.

Prior to 2005 SODAPNO included all regular (non-diet) soda and soft drinks, including sweetened Kool-Aid and other non-carbonated, sugared soft drinks. Beginning in 2005, soft drinks were further divided and SODAPNO only includes soda and other non-diet, carbonated soft drinks.

Changes in survey design (e.g., quarters in which the supplement was collected) may affect raw frequencies, but do not affect comparability of the variable. As always, data users should use the prescribed IPUMS NHIS weights.

The NHIS questionnaire was substantially redesigned in 2019 to introduce a different data collection structure and new content. For more information on changes in terminology, universes, and data collection methods beginning in 2019, please see the user note.


  • 1987: Half of sample persons age 18+ (excluded from CACT supplement).
  • 1992: Half of sample persons age 18+ in quarters 1 and 2 and 2 weeks in quarter 3 (excluded from CACT supplement).
  • 2010; 2015; 2022: Sample adults age 18+.


  • 1987, 1992, 2010, 2015, 2022