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Snuff use recode 1: Current/former/never

Codes and Frequencies

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For sample adults age 18, this is a recoded variable indicating if the respondent now uses, formerly used or never used snuff.


The term "snuff" was respondent defined. The 1987 Field Representative's Manual defined snuff as, "a smokeless tobacco product that is either inhaled through the nostrils or placed in the mouth between the cheeks and gum or under the tongue. A common term for snuff use is "dipping." It added that this definition was for the interviewer's information only, and the term snuff should only be defined for the respondent if questioned. It also instructed interviewers to record, "DK Snuff" if the respondent reported they did not know what snuff was and to accept other brands of snuff as well as those given as examples.

The Manuals for 1992 forward mention that using snuff includes sniffing it or just placing it in the mouth. The 1994 Manual indicated that interviewers should not include the use of "the new tobacco-less snuff."

Related Variables

The recoded response is provided from answers to questions on if the respondent ever used snuff (SNUFFEV), ever used it at least 20 times in their entire life (SNUFF20LIFE), and if they used it at the time of the survey (SNUFFNOW).


Apart from the slight change in the wording, this variable is not entirely comparable over time. For 1987 and 1992, the variable is comparable. Although tobacco-less snuff was less prevalent in 1992, it was only explicitly excluded in 1994, which may reduce comparability between 1992 and 1994.


  • 1987: Half of sample persons age 18+ (excluded from CAEP supplement).
  • 1992: Half of sample persons age 18+ in quarters 1 and 2, and in 2 weeks of quarter 3 (excluded from CAEP supplement).
  • 1994: Half of sample adults age 18+ (excluded from AIDS supplement) who ever used snuff at least 20 times.


  • 1987, 1992, 1994