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Recode: frequency eating doughnuts, times per year


DONUTYR is a 4-digit-numeric variable.

0: Never or less than 6 times per year
9995: 9995+
9996: 9998+
9997: Not in Universe
9998: Unknown-refused or uncertain
9999: Unknown-don't know


For sample adults, DONUTYR is a recoded variable that reports the frequency with which the respondent consumes doughnuts, cookies, cake, or pastry (in 1987 and 1992) or doughnuts, sweet rolls, Danishes, muffins, or pop-tarts (in 2010). A different variable, SWEETSYR, aggregates responses to questions about different types of baked goods to create a variable that allows researchers to compare baked goods consumption across more samples.

DONUTYR is part of a series of variables initiated in 1987 and 1992 related to food, food knowledge, and cancer. For related variables, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus.


Prior to 2000, respondents were asked to report the frequency with which they ate pie, as well as how often they ate other baked goods including doughnuts, cookies, cake, or pastries. Beginning in 2010 baked goods were instead divided between doughnuts, sweet rolls, Danishes, muffins, or pop-tarts, and cookies, cake, pie, or brownies. To allow for comparability across years, the two categories available in each sample are aggregated into the single variable SWEETSYR. Researchers interested in the differentiated sweets types should see PIEYR, which reports the number of times the respondent ate pie in one year (for 1987 and 1992), and DONUTYR, which reports the number of doughnuts, sweet rolls, Danishes, muffins, or pop-tarts the respondent ate in one year (for 2010). Data users can divide SWEETSYR by DONUTYR or PIEYR in a given sample to create the proportion of a specific type of sweets.

Prior to 2000, respondents were asked about foods they usually ate in the past year. Beginning in 2000, this recall period was reduced to foods the respondent usually ate in the past month. The structure of the responses (recording number of times a food was consumed and the time unit associated with that frequency) makes it possible to compare response categories even with different recall periods.

Changes in survey design and question wording may affect the comparability of this variable.


  • 1987; 1992: Half sample adults.
  • 2010; 2015: Sample adults.


  • 1987, 1992, 2010, 2015