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How breast cancer was found

Codes and Frequencies

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For sample adults who have breast cancer (CNBRES), CNBRESFD indicates how the breast cancer was found. Response options include: found by self (either by accident or during self-exam), found by spouse or partner, found by physician during routine breast exam, found by mammogram, found by MRI, or other.

For related variables and more information, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus.


This variable is not completely comparable over time because of changes in the universe. For example, in 2003, the universe was sample adults age 18 and older who have breast cancer. In 2010, the universe was sample female adults age 30 and older who followed recommendation for follow-up after a mammogram and were diagnosed with cancer.


  • 2003: Sample adults age 18+ who have breast cancer.
  • 2010: Female sample adults 30+ who followed recommendation for more tests after most recent mammogram and were diagnosed with cancer.


  • 2003, 2010