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U.S. citizenship

Codes and Frequencies

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CITIZEN indicates whether the individual was a U.S. citizen.

This variable is a recode of more detailed information collected in response to the question, "Are you a citizen of the United States?" In the recoded CITIZEN variable, the affirmative value (IPUMS NHIS code 2) includes the following categories: Yes, born in one of 50 U.S. states or the District of Columbia; Yes, born in Puerto Rico, Guam, American Virgin Islands, or other U.S. territory; Yes, born abroad to American parent(s); and Yes, U.S. citizen by naturalization.


This variable is completely comparable over time.


  • 1998-2013; 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018: All persons.


  • 1998-2018