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Recode: frequency eating bread, times per year


BREADYR is a 4-digit-numeric variable.

0: Never or less than 6 times per year
9996: Not in Universe
9997: Unknown-refused
9998: Unknown-not ascertained
9999: Unknown-don't know


For sample adults, BREADYR is a recoded variable that reports how many times per year the respondent consumed whole grain bread. This recoded variable is based on the responses to BREADNO, which reports the frequency with which the respondent ate whole grain bread and BREADTP, which reports the corresponding time units. For information about the portion size, see DARBREDSIZ.

BREADYR is part of a series of variables initiated in 1987 related to food, food knowledge, and cancer. For related variables, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus.


Prior to 2000, respondents were asked about foods they usually ate in the past year. Beginning in 2000, this recall period was reduced to foods the respondent usually ate in the past month. The structure of the responses (recording number of times a food was consumed and the time unit associated with that frequency) makes it possible to compare response categories even with different recall periods. In 2005, this format of separate frequency and time units was not used; instead respondents' answers were organized into pre-defined categories. Researchers interested in using all years of available data may consider seeing the 2005 variable BREADMO, and modifying BREADNO and BREADTP to correspond to the pre-defined categories from 2005.

Data users wishing to combine BREADMO with BREADNO and BREADTP should be aware that prior to 2000, bread products were differentiated by white bread or dark bread; the survey text specifies that dark breads are breads like whole wheat, rye, or pumpernickel. The 1987 field representative's manual indicates that dark bread also includes any whole wheat products listed under the white bread category (e.g., biscuits or bagels). Beginning in 2000, the survey only asked about whole grain bread and specified that this includes whole wheat, rye, oatmeal, and pumpernickel as well as cracked wheat, multi-grain, and bran breads. Please see the Survey Text tab for the exact phrasing of each year's question.

Changes in survey design (e.g., quarters in which the supplement was collected) may affect raw frequencies, but do not affect comparability of the variable. As always, data users should use the prescribed IHIS weights.


  • 1987: Half of sample persons age 18+ (excluded from CACT supplement).
  • 1992: Half of sample persons age 18+ in quarters 1 and 2, and in 2 weeks of quarter 3 (excluded from CACT supplement).
  • 2000; 2010: Sample adults age 18+.


  • 1987, 1992, 2000