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Used yoga because: Family or friends recommended

Codes and Frequencies

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YTQUSRELREC indicates whether the person used yoga, Tai chi, or Qi gong because it was recommended by family, friends, or co-workers. Please see Comparability and Universe tabs for information on changes to this variable. For information on how this variable is constructed in 2012-forward samples, please see TABDOM1.


Prior to 2012, sample adults who had seen a practitioner for yoga, Tai chi, or Qi gong during the past 12 months and, in 2002, had used yoga, Tai chi, or Qi gong for a specific health problem or condition were asked their reasons for using yoga, Tai chi, or Qi gong.

Beginning in 2012, sample adults and sample children were instead asked to select three of sixteen therapies that were most important and only asked the series of questions related to treating health problems, symptoms, or conditions as well as reasons for and the importance of using these top three therapies. Persons who did not include yoga, Tai chi, or Qi gong among their top three CAM therapies did not answer follow up questions for this therapy beginning in 2012 and are reported as responding no.

Additionally, beginning in 2012, persons were asked separately if family members, friends, or co-workers recommended use of the therapy whereas in previous years these persons were all asked about in a single variable. The harmonized IPUMS NHIS variables YTQUSRELREC, USRELREC1, USRELREC2, and USRELREC3 include family members, friends, AND co-workers to improve comparability.


  • 2007: Sample adults age 18+ who have practiced yoga, tai chi, or qi gong during the past 12 months.
  • 2012: Sample adults age 18+ and sample children ages 4-17 who have reported having at least one top CAM therapy and using this therapy to treat a specific health problem or condition.


  • 2007, 2012