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Ever used mindfulness meditation

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For sample adults age 18 and older and children age 4 and older in 2012, RELMINDEV reports whether the person had ever used mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness meditation was defined to include Vipassana, Zen Buddhist meditation, Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction, and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy.

Relaxation techniques were one of many alternative health treatment modalities included in the Complementary and Alternative Health Supplements. If sample respondents gave a positive response to RELMINDEV, they were asked a series of follow-up questions.


The 2012 Field Representative's Manual provide the following definition:

Mindfulness meditation is a type of meditation based on the concept of being mindful, or having increased awareness, of the present. It uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress. It is also known as mindfulness relaxation and mindfulness-based stress reduction.

Field representatives were advised to "feel free to offer [this definition] even if the respondent has not requested [it]."


This variable is only available in 2012.


  • 2012: Sample adults age 18+ and sample children of ages 4-17 who have ever used meditation, guided imagery, or progressive relaxation.


  • 2012