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Used massage because: Family or friends recommended

Codes and Frequencies

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MASUSRELREC indicates whether the person had used massage therapy because it was recommended by family, friends, or co-workers. Please see the Comparability, Universe and Survey Text tabs for more information on changes in the variable over time.


Prior to 2012, sample adults who had seen a practitioner for massage therapy during the past 12 months were asked their reasons for using massage therapy.

Beginning in 2012, sample adults and sample children were instead asked to select three of sixteen therapies that were most important and only asked the series of questions related to treating health problems, symptoms, or conditions as well as reasons for and importance of use for these top three therapies. Persons who did not include massage therapy among their top three CAM therapies did not answer follow up questions for this therapy beginning in 2012 and are reported as responding no.

Additionally, beginning in 2012, persons were asked separately if family members, friends, or co-workers recommended use of the therapy whereas in previous years these persons were all asked about in a single variable. The harmonized IPUMS NHIS variables ACUUSRELREC, USRELREC1, USRELREC2, and USRELREC3 include family members, friends, AND co-workers to improve comparability.


  • 2007: Sample adults age 18+ who have seen a practitioner for massage during the past 12 months.
  • 2012: Sample adults age 18+ and sample children ages 4-17 who have reported having at least one top CAM therapy and using this therapy to treat a specific health problem or condition.


  • 2007, 2012