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Codes and Frequencies

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LIVKIDNO reports the number of living children the person has. In 1976, respondents were instructed to exclude foster, step and adopted children (e.g. biological children only). In 1984, respondents were instructed to include step and adopted children. Please see Comparability and Universe tabs for complete information on the universe in each sample.

For related variables, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus.


Changes in universe and question wording limit comparability between samples. In 1976, this question was asked of all persons ages 17 and older. In 1984, this question was asked of sample persons ages 55 and older who have ever been married. In addition, step and adopted children were included in 1984 but explicitly excluded (along with foster children) in 1976.


  • 1976: Persons 17 years and older.
  • 1984: Sample persons age 55+ who have ever been married.


  • 1976, 1984