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Employment status imputation flag 4

Codes and Frequencies

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IMPEMPSFLAG4 is a generated variable that indicates whether the value for the variable EMPSTATIMP4, employment status for an adult, was directly reported (IPUMS NHIS code 1) or was not reported and was instead imputed (IPUMS NHIS code 2).

The complementary variable EMPSTATIMP4 was created as part of a set of variables that provide complete (i.e., without missing values) data on family income; the accompanying flag variables allow researchers to identify in which cases imputation was used. For more details on the purpose and methodology of imputation used in the NHIS, see EMPSTATIMP1.

Before using the imputed income and earnings variables, researchers are strongly advised to read the National Center for Health Statistics documentation on imputed income, such as 2018 Imputed Family/Personal Earnings Files and "Multiple Imputation of Family Income and Personal Earnings in the National Health Interview Survey: Methods and Examples".


IMPEMPSFLAG4 is largely comparable over time. However, the rules governing allocation of imputed employment status for the related EMPSTATIMP4 variable changed. In 1997-2000, adults (persons age 18 and older) had known employment status if they were working at a job or business last week OR were not working last week and reported their last year's work-for-pay status. Starting in 2001, adults had known employment status if they reported their last year's work-for-pay status. The employment status of the remaining adults was imputed.


  • 1997-2018: Persons age 18+


  • 1997-2018