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Plan 4: Paid for by employer/union

Codes and Frequencies

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For persons who have four private insurance plans, this variable reports if the person's fourth plan was paid for by their employer or union. This category includes persons who were self-employed and obtained coverage through self-employment or professional associations.

Related variables

The IPUMS NHIS has also created the variable HIPEMPAYR, available for 1989 forward for years in which survey data is available, which indicates whether the respondent had any private plan paid for by the employer.

Please see HIP1EMP (Plan 1: Paid for by employer/union) for more information on collection and editing of private health insurance plan data.

Please use the IHIS drop down menu and search functions for other related variables.


This variable is mostly comparable for 1997 forward and for years prior to 1997. For 1997 forward, HIP4EMP reflects responses that have been edited by the NCHS based on plan name. Only respondents verified to have private insurance are included in the data for HIP4EMP.

In 1989, this question was asked only of respondents with private health insurance who indicated the plan was obtained through an employer or union. The question wording was also different in 1989 than from 1997 forward. Respondents were asked, "Does the employer or union pay for any part of the cost for this (name) plan?" whereas for 1997 forward, respondents were asked a more general question, "Who pays for this plan?"

For 1997 forward, response categories for who paid for the plan changed over time, as new types of insurance programs became available. For all years, the categories of self or family (living in the household), employer or union, someone outside the household, Medicare, and Medicaid were available. For 1999 forward, respondents could report the category Children's Health Insurance Program. From 1998 forward, the category, "state or local government or community program" was used in place of the 1997 category of "government program."


  • 1989: Persons covered by private health insurance that pays any part of a hospital, doctor or dental bill.
  • 1997: Persons who provided an answer for HITYPE4 (persons with at least 4 health insurance plans obtained from an employer or workplace or purchased directly, or have Medi-gap)
  • 1998-2003: Persons who provided an answer for HITYPE4 (persons with at least 4 health insurance plans obtained from an employer or workplace, purchased directly, through a State or local government or community program, or have Medi-gap)


  • 1989, 1997-2003