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Codes and Frequencies

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Sample adults ages 18 and older were asked to identify one common sign of gum disease. GUMDISIGN records their response.

Respondents were not shown the answer categories. Their responses were coded as follows:

  • 1. Swollen, red, inflamed, sore, or bleeding gums.
  • 2. Chronic bad breath.
  • 3. Loose teeth.
  • 4. Receding gums.
  • 5. Other.

GUMDISIGN was first introduced in 1990 as part of the Dental Health Supplement. For related variables and more information about this supplement, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus, or see DENTDECAY.

Related Variables
Variables on the importance of strategies to prevent gum disease from other years include:

  • PGBRUSH indicates the importance given regular brushing and flossing.
  • PGDENTIST indicates the importance given regular dental visits.
  • PGFLUORDR indicates the importance given fluoridated drinking water.
  • PGFLUORTP indicates the importance given fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash.
  • PGSWEETS indicates the importance given avoiding between-meal sweets.


There are no comparability issues.


  • 1990: Sample persons age 18+.


  • 1990