Codes and Frequencies
For sample adults who reported feeling sad, nervous, restless or fidgety, hopeless, worthless, or that everything was an effort at least "some of the time" during the past 30 days, and who had such feelings less often than usual for them during that time, FBADLESS reports responses to the question, "Is that a lot less, somewhat less, or only a little less often than usual?"
Kessler Scale Variables
The indicators of sample adults' feelings used to determine who was asked this question were based on variables from the Kessler 6 Scale, which was developed by Ronald C. Kessler to measure nonspecific psychological distress over a 30-day reference period.
Specifically, Kessler's instrument asks how often, during the past 30 days, the respondent felt:
- So sad that nothing could cheer you up? (ASAD)
- Nervous? (ANERVOUS)
- Restless or fidgety? (ARESTLESS)
- Hopeless? (AHOPELESS)
- That everything was an effort? (AEFFORT)
- Worthless? (AWORTHLESS)
For each of these questions, respondents selected one of the following responses from a flashcard: "none of the time," "a little of the time," "some of the time," "most of the time," "all of the time."
Sample adults who responded "some of the time," "most of the time," or "all of the time" to any of these questions were asked, "Thinking about the feelings I just asked about, altogether, did you have them more often during the past 30 days than is usual for you, less often, or about the same as usual?" (FBADHOWOFT) Those who responded "less often" were asked the aforementioned question for FBADLESS. Those who responded "more often" were asked a parallel question (FBADMORE).
These follow-up questions were not part of the tool designed by Kessler to measure nonspecific psychological distress or severe mental illness.
- 1999: Sample adults age 18+ who felt bad (sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, or that everything was an effort) less than usual in the past 30 days.
- 1999 : SAMPWEIGHT