Codes and Frequencies
For sample persons age 18 and older, and who reported to have experienced stress within the last year, EMOHELPFREN reports whether or not the person sought help from a friend (or neighbor/peer).
In 1985, for affirmative responses, the survey specifies the order in which the first four sources of help were mentioned. If the person mentioned more than four sources of help, responses beyond the first four sources of help mentioned are not ordered. Users interested in a "yes" response about the use of this source of help (regardless of the order in which it was mentioned), should combine all response categories that indicate an affirmative response.
For changes in the sample universe and response options, please refer to the Comparability tab.
EMOHELPFREN is part of a series of variables related to sources of help with adult personal or emotional problems. For related variables, please use the IPUMS NHIS search function and drop-down menus.
Small changes in the universe occurred between 1985 and 1990. In 1990, this question was asked only of persons who knew what stress was. In 1985 this question was asked regardless of whether the person knew what stress was.
Several changes also occurred in the response categories. In 1985, the order with which the person named the sources of help was recorded, whereas in 1990 it was not. However, in 1990 the person was asked additional questions related to the extent to which each source of help was used (see for example, EMOAMTFREN). Finally note that this specific category changes slightly between the two years. In 1985, the category was defined as "Friend."; in 1990, it expanded to "Friend/neighbor/peer."
- 1985: Sample persons age 18+ who in the past year thought about seeking help for personal or emotional problems from friends/family and/or from a professional/self-help group, or for whom it was unknown whether they had thought about seeking such help, and who actually sought help.
- 1990: Sample persons age 18+ who knew what stress was, and who in the past year thought about seeking help for personal or emotional problems from family/friends and/or from a professional/self-help group, or for whom it was unknown whether they had thought about seeking such help, and who actually sought help.
- 1985, 1990
- 1985, 1990 : SAMPWEIGHT