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Had biofeedback, past 12 months

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For sample adults in 2002, 2007, and 2012, who had ever seen a practitioner for biofeedback (BIOEV) and for sample children in 2007 and 2012, BIOYR reports whether the person had used biofeedback in the past 12 months. In 1999, information about biofeedback use in the past 12 months was collected from all sample adults.

Biofeedback was one of many alternative health treatment modalities included in the Alternative Health Supplements.


The 1999 Field Representative's Manual defines biofeedback as:

using electrodes to monitor temperature, muscle tension, heart rate, and other body functions. This helps you learn how to regulate these functions to feel more relaxed.

Tthe 2002, 2007 and 2012 Field Representative's Manuals defines biofeedback as:

Biofeedback uses simple electronic devices to teach clients how to consciously regulate bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure, in order to improve overall health. Biofeedback is used to reduce stress, eliminate headaches, recondition injured muscles, control asthmatic attacks, and relieve pain.

In 2002, the definition was not routinely shared with respondents. However, in 2007 and 2012 field representatives were advised to "feel free to offer [this definition] even if the respondent has not requested [it]."

Related Variables
Additional information about use of biofeedback was collected for respondents who reported using biofeedback in the past 12 months, including variables on frequency of use and amount of out-of-pocket costs. Please use the IPUMS NHIS drop-down menus and search function to explore these variables.


In 2007, sample children were added to the universe for this question. In 2007 only, the sample child universe was not restricted by if the sample child had ever used biofeedback (BIOEV). Because of this expanded universe, the number of negative responses for BIOYR is much higher in 2007. Otherwise, there are no comparability issues.


  • 1999: Sample adults age 18+.
  • 2002: Sample adults age 18+ who have ever seen a practitioner for biofeedback.
  • 2007: Sample adults age 18+ who have ever seen a practitioner for biofeedback and sample children under 18.
  • 2012: Sample adults age 18+ who have ever seen a practitioner for biofeedback and sample children between the ages of 4 and 17.


  • 1999, 2002, 2007, 2012